We have been receiving more and more questions from human resources professionals asking how the ADA might impact their preparation for a potential pandemic flu. Now the EEOC has issued technical guidance on the topic, focused primarily on employers’ rights to make medical inquiries and require medical examinations of applicants and employees. With respect to applicants, the EEOC notes that the ADA operates normally to preclude all disability-related questions and medical exams until after a conditional offer has been made. With respect to current employees, who can be required to respond to medical inquiries or undergo medical exams only if they are job-related and consistent with business necessity, however, the EEOC recommended a model survey of employees that could be issued to all employees in preparation for a pandemic. The model survey is reprinted below:
ADA-Compliant Pre-Pandemic Employee Survey:
Directions: Answer “yes” to the whole question without specifying the reason or reasons that apply to you. Simply check “yes” or “no” at the bottom.
In the event of a pandemic, would you be unable to come to work because of any of the following reasons:
If schools or day-care centers were closed, you would need to care for a child;
If other services were unavailable, you would need to care for other dependents;
If public transport were sporadic or unavailable, you would be unable to travel to work, and/or:
If you or a member of your household fall into one of the categories identified by CDC as being at high risk for serious complications from the pandemic influenza virus, you would be advised by public health authorities not to come to work (e.g., pregnant women; persons with compromised immune systems due to cancer, HIV, history of organ transplant or other medical conditions; persons less than 65 years of age with underlying chronic conditions; or persons over 65).
Answer: YES __________ NO __________
The EEOC’s guidance also clarifies its position that employers may enforce rules requiring employees to behave in a hygienically appropriate manner to avoid the spread of the flu, to wear personal protective gear such as face masks, and to require employees to work from home.
In a separate release cryptically titled “Employment Discrimination and the 2009 H1N1 Flu Virus (Swine Flu),” the EEOC reminds us that Title VII “prohibits employment discrimination on the basis of national origin, for example, discrimination against Mexicans.” The “guidance” states nothing else as it relates to Title VII. Presumably, the EEOC wants to remind employers not to direct any employment actions at workers of Mexican descent out of a fear or concern that they may be more likely to carry the H1N1 flu virus.